Pope Leo IX (1049–54), a German named Bruno of Toul, born in Alsace on 1002; successor of Damasus II. A relative of Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, he was educated at Toul and was made bishop there in 1027. Leo traveled widely, vigorously combating clerical incontinence and simony; his pontificate marks the beginning of papal reform in the 11th cent. The heresy of Berengar of Tours concerning the Real Presence also occupied the attention of the pope. St. Leo mediated questions presented by England, France, and Hungary. He added to the papal lands in Italy through an exchange with Emperor Henry III. He fought the Normans of S Italy, but was defeated (1053) at Civitella. The bitter feeling between East and West brought an attack (1053) on the pope by Michael Cerularius, the patriarch of Constantinople. This culminated in the excommunication of Michael and those in his communion by the papal legates (1054). He was succeeded by Victor II. Feast: Apr. 19.
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