Pope Clement V (1305–14) was a Frenchman named Bertrand de Got born on 1264; successor of Benedict XI. He was made archbishop of Bordeaux by Boniface VIII, who trusted him; surprisingly, he was also in some favor at the court of Philip IV, even though Philip and the pope were archenemies. He was crowned pope at Lyons in Philip’s presence and lived the rest of his life in France. In 1309 he settled at Avignon, beginning the long, controversial residency of the papacy there. The pontificate of Clement is one long chronicle of dictation by the French king. Although Clement effectively squelched Philip’s effort to have Boniface posthumously condemned as a heretic—an act that would have been disastrous to the papacy—he supported Philip in the infamous suppression of the Knights Templars. He called the Council of Vienne to settle the issue and to deal with questions of heresy and church reform. He opposed Philip by supporting the election and coronation (1312) of Henry VII as Holy Roman emperor, but later renounced Henry for his policies in Italy. The Constitutiones Clementinae, issued by the pope in 1313, are important in canon law. He was succeeded by John XXII.
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