Pope Paul IV (1555–1559) was a Neapolitan named Gian Pietro Carafa,
born on 1476 and successor of Marcellus II. First superior of the
Theatines, he was sternly ascetic. A leading reformer, he organized the
Inquisition set up by Paul III. As pope, he labored to purify the clergy
and abolish corruption and worldliness from the papal curia, thus
promoting reform. He repudiated the settlement between Mary I of England
and Reginald Cardinal Pole, and he later declared Elizabeth I illegitimate
and unfit to be queen. He was succeeded by Pius IV.